Terms To Know If You Plan To Open A Merchant Account
July 11, 2018
Terms To Know If You Plan To Open A Merchant Account
What is the first step to being initiated when you are planning to venture into a business and make your products available on sale either through an E-commerce site or in a physical store? To open and activate a merchant account exclusively for receiving payments and settle payments. The customers in the current world are inclined more and more towards online payments irrespective of whether the items are purchased through the internet or from the brick and mortar center.
It, therefore becomes crucial for your smooth operation that an efficient merchant account is attached with your business and here are some terms associated with the same, in the context of usage:
Merchant Account Provider: The bank or the financial institution that provides a merchant account to the merchant for settling card transactions and online payments.
Merchant agreement: The account is usually opened by the completion of a merchant agreement between the account provider and the merchant and sometimes the payment processor or marketing organizations also form a party in the agreement. Once the agreement has been made effective, the merchant has to abide by the regulations issued by the card association authorities.
Payment Gateway: The secure channel for the transfer of payments to the merchant account from the card account holder who carries out the purchase. Payment gateways can also handle digital currencies, provided they are not affected by any QProfit System scam.
Payment Processor: The financial institutions that work in the background to process the payment authorizations back and forth between the bank and a merchant account through the payment gateway in such a way that the security of the transaction is maintained.
Point Of Sale: The point at which the total billing amount for a purchase is calculated and an attempt is made to pay off the bills usually through a virtual terminal by card swiping or manual key entering.
Credit Card Terminal: The independent electronic equipment on which a card is swiped for making payments or details are entered through keys on its keypads. Some stand-alone machines may have a small printing machine attached to them.
ARU: ARU stands for Automated Response Unit and is a method in which the manual method of entering the keys for validating a card transaction is completed through telephone lines or mobiles.
Discount Rate: The charges to be paid by the merchants in the form of fees, bills, taxes, dues, network charges etc for maintaining a merchant account.
Basis Points: The basis for calculating discount rates which are 1/100th of a percentage point.
Business ideas that will help you travel up the ladder!
July 3, 2018
Sometimes business is the best solution for your needs and desires, working on a compact fixed schedule will not leave you an option to earn more! But, the business also comes with its own pro and cons.
Not all business will reap benefits, only a few will give you benefits and double up your investments. But a few others will actually put down your investment and bring you to utter bad state. Bad ideas and strategy have the power to do that to you!
So, what are the best business ideas for the current generation, that will help both the consumer and you mutually, giving good business to you and a good product or service to the consumer! There are many which are pretty essential ones but the location, the kind of service you offer and the list of availabilities will tell whether you can climb up or fall down.
Here is the list of business that you can try a hand at:
There is nothing that is impossible if you put all your efforts into making your dream come true. With hard work, smart ideas and strategy, you can surely go a long way.
The best of all, Travel Agents:
Do you love traveling? So, do you want to let people know about various places or assist them in traveling, then this can work for you! with the internet going places, and everyone having an exposure of the globe, many are now interested in traveling across the globe to explore the places and take a look at the various wonders. Travelling can leave you feeling refreshed, relaxed and gives you a sense of satisfaction, as the memories you take is cherished till you breathe last!
This is the best and trending option across the globe. Though there are many cafes, there are a few which can’t be missed and the delightful experience along with culinary expertise makes it the best! Since there are many outlets, is it a safe option to invest your hard-earned money, is this thought on your mind? Well, food is something that everyone needs, and if you can make it interesting, healthy and nutritious, you can surely survive.
Well for the initial investment money, you can start saving by investing in cryptocurrencies and trade using binary trading, that is trending in finances. This allows you to take back money as much as you aspire to, by investing a little in the beginning and setting your preference and staying in the system.
Guidelines to earn good money in the market
June 9, 2018
Many people have entered the market without any knowledge and blindly trusted some friend’s advice. They would have invested the money and lost in a big way. Even though trading is a risky affair, you can earn a profit and make good money if you play the game smartly. The return on your investment depends mainly on the trader’s risk appetite
You can get lucky in trading and earn money by following someone’s tip or advice. But in order to make money consistently, you need to have a good knowledge of the market you are going to trade in and should possess good technical analysis. Technical analysis is basically the forecasting of price on the basis of historical data.
There are many software’s available online for free which can conduct technical analysis for you but it will have only limited features. However, if you are planning to trade in virtual currencies, you can try the software crypto VIP club. The crypto VIP club review can be read here and you will get a fair idea about its workings. Whichever financial market you plan to enter, you need to keep in mind the following points.
Points to be kept in mind
Timings- You must look for the most volatile time of the market you wish to enter. That will be the idle time to enter the market to reap in profit.
Demand and supply- You should know about the demand and supply of the asset you are trading in. If there are number of assets up for sale, do not buy them immediately and vice versa. You should rely blindly on the ask numbers that are available. You should conduct a technical analysis to find out the demand and supply of the asset.
Minimum capital- You should possess’ minimum amount of money to trade in to earn a meaningful gain. However, you need to make sure that this money should not come from your savings or you should not borrow them.
Discipline- The skill of a trader lies in his ability to follow the stop-loss order. Before you enter the trade, you should have a clear idea about the loss you are willing to take on. All the successful traders are disciplined and stick to the plan.
Planning – One should have a proper detailed plan of the trade before you enter the market. The plan should be followed religiously so that you can achieve what you aim for.
Bit coin Code – is it legit or a scam software
April 19, 2018
Bit coin code is newest trading system that is available in market which can generate profits more than 97% it is highest profit generating system in market and no other software are able to produce the payouts so high and this is possible due to sophisticated algorithm that is been used in developing the software, the algorithm was designed using various computer codes with advanced technologies. The man behind this successful software is Steve McKay, the software is mainly used to auto trade bit coins and it has ability to scan the ongoing patterns in market and also fluctuations in value of crypto currency and work according to them. The software is extremely powerful software which can be used by all range of traders irrespective of their experience and knowledge. Traders and novices both can use this application with ease as the interface used is user friendly and robot rate of accuracy is high hence all most all trades placed by robot are positive and gains profits. There are no necessary downloads or installations to be done as the system is completely web-based and can be used on any operating system like Android, Ios, Mac or windows and will work on any device like phone, table, laptop or pc and all user need to have is uninterrupted network and he can place trade from any place of the world and collect his profits by just raising a request and the request will be completed within 2-3 days.
The process of signing up with this software is easy and will be done in three simple steps and here is the procedure written in detailed for trader:
- The process of sign-up starts with user visiting the official page of software he chooses and click on sign-up button and user need to provide some basic details like name, email address and telephone number for verification
- Once the process of verification is done user will receive a conformation email which consists of an external link, on clicking the link user will be redirected to broker page where user need to choose one of the authentic broker and link to it.
- Once the linking is done user need to make deposit of $250 and turn on auto-pilot mode to perform trades and collect profits by raising the request.
Bit coin Code – is it legit or a scam software, this question is confusing many people but, on our survey, done by research team we found software to be legit and reliable.
April 13, 2018
The first step towards the success in trading is to understand crypto trading and signing-up, trader need to know basic details and fundamental principle on how the trading system works advantages and disadvantages about them. The popularity of crypto currency has increase in 2009 and this trading is very attractive as it is gaining more popularity, the returns vary from person to person as the investment will vary. Usage of crypto currency is completely normal and logical also, as the people can see great value in money which free from government control and also additional fees from bank. These crypto currencies have scope to large amount of private transaction and the transactions made are safe and secure and if users want to fake the transaction or the transactions made can be reversed. The currencies got decentralized hence any person get access to this system. Most of the traders in this crypto currency system are using it for making transaction, making payments and also purchases without using any intermediary and they will not require any physical alternatives unlike any other currencies so the trades made are easier.
This type of using currencies is easy and new to traders, but this system is not widely used but there are some particular purposes people prefer to use them are:
In future the use of crypto currency will increase and will be used in various different purposes, there are various crypto coins available in market and there are many new coming as the usage and popularity of crypto currency is increasing day by day, on survey done by top 10 crypto robots they found more than 900 different crypto exchanges are available, they are ready and available in internet now and user can use them at any point of time, even more of them are coming in to market. In the market available bit coin is the largest and biggest block-chain network and second largest network is Ethereum. Finding the profitable crypto currency from the market is very difficult, the price varies for different crypto currencies on the market, and bit coin in first position may not last for long as Ethereum is quickly gaining momentum. Users should be careful while choosing and they should explore all opportunities. Read more on official website.
July 23, 2008
Malheur River and Hot Springs
The emigrants made their way from the Snake River to the Malheur River across what Sarah Sutton, in 1854, described as “the most dusty dry and hot bare desert that any person ever travers’d…” Vale was the point at which they crossed the Malheur river, watered livestock, camped and washed their clothing; many emigrants took advantage of river water heated by nearby hot springs.
“Left camp at 11 o’clock & traveled over a sandy country suffered considerable for water as the day was exceedingly hot came to a creek about 6 o’clock & never was water to me more exceptable, though of a very indeifferent quality, passed down the creek a short distance at the food of a mountain & found boiling water running out of the ground. It made its appearance just above the age of the water in the River in a Boiling state for over a hundred yards it runs more or less. One of our company cooked a fish which he caught in about two minutes perfectly through.”
Short cut Ends in Disaster!
Weary emigrants were only too receptive to any idea that might shorten their journey, especially if it meant avoiding the Blue Mountains. Stephen Meek, pilot of an 1845 emigration, persuaded 200 families camped near this site to follow him on an alternate route across the desert to the upper Willamette Valley. The expedition became stalled at Lost Hollow. Unable to find water to the west, the emigrants turned north and twenty-four died before they reached The Dalles.
“At this place are two trails; the fork is in the bottom above the crossing of the creek, and there is the possibility of the emigrants pursuing the wrong route…Mr. Meek, who had been engaged as our pilot…informed the emigrants that he could, by taaking up this stream to near its source, and striking across the plains, so as to intersect the old road near the mouth of the Deschutes or Falls river, save about one hundred and fifty miles travel; also that he was perfectly familiar with the country through which the proposed route lay, as he had traveled it; that no difficulty or danger attended its travel.”
Chivalry on the Trail
The Oregon Trail was not a journey to be taken lightly; hardship was the common fare. Boys will be boys however; practical jokes and monkeyshines were not uncommon.
“We were soon joined by a band of youngsters from another camp, all on horseback. They bantered me to join them, but I pleaded I was on foot and could not join them, a young fellow knowing my timidity and awkwardness told me to take his horse, I accepted and started with them.
Born and Raised on the Oregon Trail
The Malheur River provided much needed water for both Oregon Trail emigrants and their livestock. Nearby hot springs must have provided many an emigrant family with the first hot bath in months of dry and dusty travel. The City of Vale stands today on the same site at which the emigrants camped, and was literally born and raised on the Oregon Trail.
The hot springs were the site of Vale’s first structure, described by Sarah Sutton, emigrant of 1854 as “a hut and tent occupi’d by a Mr. Turner of Oregon a Trader.” These springs were also the site of Vale’s first legitimate building; the Bulley Ranch, owned by Capt. Jonathan Keeney, a trapper, ferry-man and jack-of-all-trades, who sold whisky to Oregon Trail emigrants.
Worthy of Consideration
Most Oregon Trail emigrants who camped along the banks of the Malheur River were unimpressed and were eager to trek on toward greener pastures in the Willamette Valley. An anonymous emigrant of 1843 exclaimed: “It is a desert, so rugged, so dreary, and so exceedingly sterile that it cannot, until ages have melted its mountains, until the winds and floods and changes of thousands and thousands of years shall have crumbled into dust its rocks and its sands, yield anything worthy of consideration to the support of human life…”
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The discovery of gold in 1863 changed this attitude. The influx of miners created a market for agricultural products first satisfied by the introduction of livestock and produce farming in 1864. Agricultural ventures were flourishing by the 1870’s, and the westward flow of livestock across the Oregon trail that marked the previous three decades reversed its course, as massive herds of Oregon horses, cattle and sheep were driven east to market. Miners and farmers comprised the first residents, and they are still a mainstay in this region once described as “so exceedingly sterile.”
Legend of the Blue Bucket
“The captain of the company told all of the young people who had saddle horses to take buckets and go hunt for water. My father, who was then 23 years old and his sister…took their old blue wooden buckets and started out to find water. They finally found a dry creek bed which they followed until they found a place where a little water was seeping through the gravel, and while father was digging for water his sister saw something bright and picked it up.”
Stephen Meek, pilot of an ill-fated 1845 emigration, successfully persuaded 200 families to attempt a shortcut around the Blue Mountains. Although the endeavor proved disastrous, legend holds that in their desperate search for water the lost emigrants discovered a small amount of gold!
Snake River Crossing
November 7, 2007
Snake River Crossing
River crossings were difficult for Oregon Trail emigrants and the Snake River was no exception. Emigrants, wagons, and livestock all had to cross the river; casualties were common. Celinda Hines, emigrant of 1853, watched in horror as her father vanished into the depths of the Snake River at this crossing: “Uncle G swam in & got out Pa’s hat”, she lamented. Fortunately, local Indians could be hired to assist emigrants at this river crossing.
“. . . our worst trouble at these large rivers, is swiming the stock over, often after swimming nearly halfway over, the poor things, will turn and come out again, at this place, however, there are Indians who swim the river from morning till night it is fun for them, there is many a drove of cattle that could not be got over without their help, by paying them a small sum, they will take a horse by the bridle or halter, and swim over with him, the rest of the horses all follow, and by driving and hurraing to the cattle they will most always follow the horses, sometimes they fail and turn back.“ Amelia Stewart Knight, August 5,1853
For Basil Nelson Longworth, emigrant of 1853, crossing the Snake River near this site was easy with the help of the newly established ferry: “we ran both wagons on the boat and in a few minutes were safely on the other side.” Before the ferry was established, river crossing required careful planning and considerable creativity.
“we found the river here too deep to ford and had to ferry in a large canoe belonging to the Fort. the plan of crossing was to pile the load into the bottom of the canoe and balance the wagon on top of the canoe. this required a good deal of care and skill to prevent capsizing. we had one wagon tumble into the river, but succeeded in getting it out alive. But it was well soaked.”
Wagon Passage Successful!
The average American would not have considered heading west with only a few pack mules. To emigrate without a wagon meant leaving behind the possessions acquired during a lifetime to start anew in the wilderness. When missionary emigrants Marcus and Narcissa Whitman left their one-horse wagon at Fort Boise in 1836, great excitement was generated in the States: emigration to Oregon via wagon was within the realm of possibility. Two years later, Thomas Jefferson Farnham would claim that: “a safe and easy passage has lately been discovered by which vehicles of the kind may be drawn through to Wallawalla.“
“This being a fishing spot of the Indians, we easily found a canoe made of rushes and willows on which we placed ourselves and our saddles … Perhaps you will wonder why we have left the waggon having taken it so near through. Our animals were failing & the route in crossing the Blue Mountains is said to be impassable…“ Narcissa Whitman, August 22, 1836
Chinese and European aristocrats of the early 19th Century had one thing in common, and it was the best that money could buy – a genuine beaver hat! Half a world away, in the Oregon Country, the British Hudson’s Bay company was doing all it could to remain the primary supplier of furs to make those hats. When American fur traders built Fort Hall as a trading post in what is today southeastern Idaho, the Hudson’s Bay company built Fort Boise across the Snake River from this site to oppose them in 1838. By the mid 1840’s trappers had depleted the beaver population; Fort Boise and Britain’s claim to the Oregon Country was in rapid decline.
Banquet in the Wilderness
Oases along the Oregon Trail were few, and Fort Boise was one of them. Emigrants stopping at Fort Boise in the 1830’s were greeted and assisted by friendly Indians; they were also offered hospitality that only the Hudson’s Bay Company could provide. Sydney Smith, emigrant of 1839, feasted at a table laid with“fowls, Ducks, Bacon, Salmon Sturgeon Buffalow and Elk… Turnips Cabbag & Pickled Beets…” The banquet was hosted by the clerk of the fort, Francois Payette, a gentleman who could make an emigrant temporarily forget the privations of the wilderness.
“Mr. Payette, the person in charge at Boisas, received us with every mark of kindness; gaveour horses to the care of his servants, and introduced us immediately to the chairs, tables, and edibles of his apartments. He is a French Canadian; has been in the service of the Hudson’s Bay Company more than twenty years, and holds the rank of clerk; is a merry, fat old gentleman of fifty, who, although inthe wilderness all the best years of his life, has retained that manner of benevolence in trifles, in his mode of address, of seating you and serving you at table, of directing your attention continually to some little matter of interest, of making you speak the French language…” Thomas Jefferson Farnham.
Fort Boise in Decline
The beaver population was decimated by the 1840’s; fur trade was in decline, and so too was Fort Boise. Although friendly Indians were still available to assist crossing the Snake River, many emigrants were shocked by the dilapidated condition of the oasis described so lavishly by those who had gone before them. Charlotte Stearns Pengra, emigrant of 1853, called Fort Boise “that world renowned spot of one miserable block house going all decay…” For emigrants in need of provisions, the Fort’s demise was a serious matter.
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“…a great many had depended on getting provisions here but failed entirely of anything but fish – There is little sugar for sale here at .75 pr pound – Prospects seem to darken entirely around us a good deal for some families are already entirely out of bread and many more will be in the course of one or two weeks – We have enough to last us through but we shall have to divide if necessary.” Cecilia Adams and Parthenia Blank; September 20, 1852.
November 7, 2007
The Devil’s Backbone
The route of the Oregon Trail in Oregon changed many times during the emigration era. Early emigrants braved the wild Columbia River, and later many chose to trek across the desolate Columbia Plateau from Pendleton to The Dalles before turning to the river for the final leg of the journey. After Samuel K. Barlow opened a toll road over the Cascade Mountains in 1846 emigrants were offered yet another alternative that avo8ided the Columbia altogether. The Barlow Road ascended the south flank of Mt. Hood and descended the watersheds of the Zigzag and Sandy Rivers. Emigrants entered the valley below by following the long ridge to the east, called the Devil’s Backbone, and then descending the steep incline to ford the river they climbed the hill and passed through what is today the City of Sandy toward what P. V. Crawford, emigrant of 1851called, “the great Willamette Valley.” this viewpoint is named for the Jonsrud family of Sandy, Oregon. T. G. Jonsrud and his wife Kari settled west of Sandy in 1877. the Jonsrud’s son Robert, a blacksmith and sawmill owner, acquired this land in the early 1900s. In 1922 Robert and his wife Tillie built the beautiful Prairie Style house across the road and cleared this viewpoint which has been in constant use for more than 70 years. Philip Jonsrud, Robert’s son, donated the viewpoint to the City of Sandy in 1984.
“…We have arived at the conclusion that the much-dreaded place that the world calls “hell” is no more to be dreaded, for on our trip across the Continent we have safely passed through “The Devil’s Gate,” and witnessed a great many of his works while reviewing his grand estate, and at last, after arriving away out here in Oregon, we have had the exquisite pleasure of driving our team over the old man’s backbone. That is, “The Devil’s Backbone.” Here we will leave the old man’s carcass to be wet with the mists of an Oregon winter.” E. W. Conyers; September 22, 1852
During the covered wagon era thousands of Oregon Trail emigrants reached the valley below on the Barlow Road by descending the south side of the long east ridge called the “Devil’s Backbone.” Samuel James made this descent in 1850 and “let the wagons down by ropes.” Once down, weary emigrants, wagons and livestock forded the river–accidents were common.
“Came on to the crossing of the Sandy, a very hard stream to cross, as the current is very rapid and the bed of the stream full of large smooth rocks and very deep. Mr. H got on one of the mules to cross and I on the other. when he got to the deepest part, his poor mule stumbled and fell, throwing Mr. H. off on a large rock and the mule on one of his legs, so that he could not move. There happened to be a man wading at the same time, who came to his relief as soon as he could. Mr. H. got loose but it was some time before they got the frightened mule out. I was very much alarmed. I though that Mr. H. would certainly be drowned or seriously hurt, but he sustained no injury but a bruise on his leg, his pants being cut on the rock. My heart seemed to turn over when I saw him fall! He was soaked up to the waist. He emptied his boots, which were full of water, and walked 8 miles in this condition.” Esther Belle McMillan Hanna; September 14, 1852
The trek westward on the Oregon Trail was arduous: wagons broke down, animals died of exhaustion, and supplies were depleted. Early emigrants found few permanent trading posts and often relied on trade with Indians for survival. During the 1850s itinerant traders from the Willamette Valley wandered the trail to supply emigrants. Later entrepeneurs, like the Revenue family, established permanent trading posts along the emigrant route.
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But in the past, even education was difficult.
The Sandy area’s first school was built on the Revenue’s land in 1868 in part to educate the 8 children born after emigration to Oregon. John, the eldest Revenue son later recalled, “I yarded the logs for that first school to the site when I was 14 and attended the school three months a year until I was 19.” In the mid-1870s Francis Revenue purchased land in the new village of Sandy where he built a store and hotel. Most of the level land visible across the river top to the east is part of the Revenue’s Donation Land Claim.
“Traveled over the Backbone to the last crossing of the Sandy…and camped near the first dwelling house we found in the Cascades. Here we found like civilization cock crowing and dogs barking, corn and potatoes growing all which seemed to us like home.” Philip Condit; September 15, 1854
The Oregon Trail Kiosk Tour
November 7, 2007
Perhaps you’ve seen and visited the Oregon Trail interpretive kiosks along Oregon’s major highways, and wondered where they came from. They are mostly the work of the Oregon Trail Coordinating Council (OTCC), headed by Jim Renner. In 1991 OTCC was commissioned to prepare interpretation of the Oregon Trail in Oregon for the 150th anniversary of the first major migration. They staged plays, campouts, town celebrations, even a wagon train from the Wyoming-Idaho Border. But a more enduring result of their efforts are the 24 interpretive kiosks OTCC created or refurbished, and four major Interpretive Centers:
National Historic Oregon Trail Interpretive Center at Flagstaff Hill, OR
End of the Oregon Trail Interpretive Center at Oregon City, OR
Tamastslikt Cultural Institute at Pendleton, OR
Columbia Gorge Discovery Center at The Dalles, OR
This website will take you on a virtual tour of the interpretive kiosks. Links are also provided to the Clickable Oregon Trail in Oregon, a photo tour of the same route.
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The sites on both routes are also linked in a Trail Sites List, which will let you access any individual site at will.
Panel design & text by Sea Reach LTD; Rose Lodge, Oregon
November 7, 2007
The Barlow Road
Early Oregon Trail emigrants had little choice but to follow the perilous route of the Columbia River. In 1845, despite warnings from missionaries at The Dalles, Samuel K. Barlow decided to forge a wagon road across the formidable Cascades. Barlow led seven wagons southwest through Tygh Valley toward Mt. Hood–fellow traveler Joel Palmer soon followed withn 23 wagons. With winter fast approaching the trailblazers were forced to cache their wagons and proceed on foot with pack animals to Oregon City. Barlow returned the following spring with a charter from the territorial legislature and a work crew of 40 men to open a toll road. The Barlow road was rough–“Desparate bad beyond Discription,” for Isom Cranfill in 1847. Many emigrants trekking the rain-soaked slopes with P. V. Crawford in 1851 found, “the most terrible mud we had yet met with during the whole two thousand miles of travel.” The road was an instant success, however, and after 1846 many emigrants chose it over the Columbia River. Barlow charged $5 per wagon and 10 cents per head of stock, and by 1847 with profits in hand he returned the charter to the territorial legislature.
In 1849 the U. S. Army Mounted Riflemen traveled west on the Oregon Trail to establish posts along the route and in the Oregon Territory. During their journey on the Barlow Road from Tygh Valley nearly two-thirds of the livestock perished while pulling 45 heavily laden wagons. the regiment’s officers ordered the men to cache the wagons’ contents ner this site until they could be retrieved the following spring. The presence of wrecked army wagons and supplies gave rise to the name Government Camp.
Yocum built the town’s first hotel in 1899, and others soon followed. During the early 1900s the community was a summer resort and base camp for mountain climbers.
Winter’s Cruel Approach
Oregon Trail emigrants reached Government Camp jaded, weak, and hungry after months of arduous travel. Livestock and draft animals were equally as exhausted: “the whole Caskade mountain was one general horse and ox graveyard.” Jared Fox lamented in 1852. Emigrants suffered from the bitter cold on these forested slopes and often huddled beneath trees in the fog, rain and snow at winter’s cruel approach.
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“…we succeeeeded after a long time, in getting about half-way over the mountains. Then we discovered, to our horror, that it was utterly impossible for us to proceed farther without help. Our cattle could not draw the wagon another yard. None of our companions could assist us, for they were in the same situation as ourselves. We were in despair. Winter was appproching.. In fact, it was apparently already here. Our provisions were almost exhausted. We knew not which way to turn. We tried to walk over the mountains, leaving our cattle to their fate, but we found that impossible. One day I walked six miles, carrying my little girl, and at every step I sank deep in crusted snow.” Esther M. Lockhart; Emigrant of 1851 (Recollection) .
Steep, Rough and Rocky Hills
Most Oregon Trail emigrants camped a few miles to the east at Summit Meadows where many along with William J. Watson in 1849 found, “good grass, but very soft ground, covered with water.” In 1880 Frank Stevens camped at this swampy mountain meadow and discovered, “Mosquitoes just a-swarming…as thought they hadn’t anything to eat since the first emigrants crossed over this way.” the waon route between Summit Meadows and the Zigzag River passed throught the heart of Bovernment Camp toward Laurel Hill–an incline approaching 60 degrees described succinctly by Riley Root in 1848 as “steep and dangerous,” but considered by many, along with Samuel James in 1850, “one of the worst in the World.”
“…Traeled 14 miles today over the worst road that was ever made up an down very steep rough and rocky hills, through mud holes, twisting and winding round stumps, logs, and fallen trees. Now we are on the end of a log, now bounce in a mud hole, now over a big root of a tree, or rock, then bang goes the other side of the wagon and woe be to whatever is inside…” Amelia Stewart Knight; September 8, 1853